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Isolation of sweet potato starch and optimization of it's application in processed cheese based products using tomato puree as flavouring ingredient

Abstract: This study is conducted by Institute of Good Manufacturing Practices India (IGMPI), Noida, India with aim to extract starch from sweet potato and to find it’s utilization in Processed Cheese Spread based products. As per plan starch was isolated from sound sweet potatoes using NaCl and KMS solution to prevent enzymatic browning in cut sweet potatoes. The extracted starch powder along with tomato puree was used in different proportions in the preparation of processed cheese spread. Starch Powder was added to enhance textural properties and tomato puree was added to add taste, flavor and color to the product. The recipe was standardized on the basis of sensory results obtained using 5- point hedonic scale. The standardized recipe was studied for its shelf life properties both in terms of taste and texture. The product was studied for one month under refrigerated storage conditions and was found consistent in terms of physiological and sensorial properties.

Introduction Sweet potato is a crop with a significantly unrealized potential. Sweet potato is good source of vitamins C and E as well as dietary fiber, potassium, and iron, and is low in fat and cholesterol .The orange-and red-fleshed forms of sweet potato are particularly high in beta-carotene, the vitamin A precursor. Sweet potato contains a limited amount of protein, although rich in dietary fiber content and carbohydrate. (Anton Mais, 2008), so a successful combination with cheese and tomatoes for the production of cheese spread is nutritionally advantageous. In cheese spread, the sweet potato starch act as a stabilizing and thickening agent whereas, tomato puree can add to flavoring and coloring.

RAW MATERIAL PREPARATION
br> Sweet potato starch extraction
The sweet potatoes were thoroughly washed to remove dirt and unwanted materials. Then they were peeled and diced into thin slices manually. Slices were directly immersed into 1% NaCl solution and then immersed in solution containing KMS (1%) for 30 minutes to minimize browning. The slices were wet milled into paste at a high speed in a laboratory scale grinder with 1:2 w/v of tap water for 2-3 minutes and the homogenate was filtered through muslin/gauze. Residue was repeatedly wet milled and filtered thrice. Then the suspension was kept for 2-3 hours for settling of the starch. The supernatant was then decanted and the settled residue was collected. The purified starch was then allowed to dry at 35°C for 24-48 hours in incubator. After drying, the starch powder was packed in an airtight container and stored at room temperature for further use and analysis.


Fig: Showing Structure of Starch



Tomato puree preparation
Fresh tomatoes were collected and washed properly. Then the tomatoes were dipped in boiling water for 10-15 minutes and drained. The drained tomatoes were kept at room temperature for few minutes to cool down. After that blending of the tomatoes were done in a laboratory scale grinder. It is necessary to remove the seeds and tomato skin, which was done by sieving through a medium mesh (1-2mm holes). The puree was collected in a beaker and covered with aluminum foil for further use.

Cheddar cheese
Cheddar cheese was grinded into fine pieces in the laboratory scale grinder for proper mixing.

FORMULATION OF CHEESE SPREAD
The cheese spread was prepared with the incorporation of several different concentrations of sweet potato starch and tomato puree, along with other ingredients. As to maintain the texture and thickness of the cheese spread, starch was gelatinized and then butter along with crushed cheddar cheese were added and mixed properly at medium heat and then cooked to about 95 °C. Based on the sensory analysis, the best combinations were determined and recipe was standardized. Table: Showing Standardized Formulation for Processed Cheese:

Ingredients %age
Cheddar Cheese 17.71
Starch 4.66
Butter 14.17
Sugar 1.11
Salt 1.42
Water 39.47
Tomato puree 21.46

SENSORY ANALYSIS
The final best sample was prepared and stored in a tight container for further study. A group of 5 members were asked to evaluate the product based on their liking. The panel members were the faculty and students of IGMPI, Noida. The sensory attributes such as appearance, taste, texture, hand feel and overall acceptability were scored by the members at 7 days interval for a period of 36 days. 5-point hedonic scale was used to find the acceptability of the product.
Table: Showing 5-point Hedonic Scale for Sensory Analysis

Scores Grading
5 Excellent
4 Very good
3 Acceptable
2 Big defects, unacceptable
1 Worst, very bad, unacceptable
0 Attribute not present in the product

Physiochemical Analysis:
The Acidity and Dry Matter of product was tested at 7 days interval and no remarkable change was observed.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS

All presented results indicate the application of polysaccharide hydrocolloids, i.e. starches, can be used for obtaining high viscosity products intended primarily for spreading.

CONCLUSIONS
Research today is focused on increasing nutrition in human health, since consumers are becoming more and more health-conscious and often search for health foods as part of their daily diets. Cheese has a long history in the human diet considering it has a substantial amount of essential nutrients such as proteins, vitamins, amino acids, fat, minerals, and fatty acids. Results obtained from the above study revealed that blending of natural cheddar cheese with gelatinized starch in the presence of other ingredients produces the processed cheese spread with creamy mouth feel and smooth texture. Sweet potato starch can replace fat in the recipe and can help in obtaining low fat products with added nutrients in terms of fibers, vitamins and minerals. The use of starches in the manufacturing of processed cheese products can also help in lowering production costs. Along with sweet potato starch, an extra addition of tomato puree for the enhancement of flavor and to give it a new color has also been done, apart from flavoring and color tomatoes are also a very nutritive fruit which. It has many potential health effects related to cardiovascular disease, prostrate cancer and also to lower the blood pressure. These health effects are believed to be related to a chemical present in tomatoes known as lycopene (effective antioxidant), which helps to inactivate the free radicals present in the body.Hence manufacturing of processed cheese spread using sweet potato starch with a combination of tomato puree provides a notable food product in terms of nutrition for different groups of people due to its versatility and ease of consumption. Further studies can be done by incorporating starch as fat replacer to other food products.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors would like to thank IGMPI, Noida for providing necessary resources for developing the product. They are thankful to Ms. Sangita , Assistant Professor, IGMPI for her technical advice and support.

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